The Evolving Future of HR Practice






            The human resource management continues to undergo evolution and its future seems brighter each and every day. Previously, human resource was solely perceived to have a role in taking part in the recruitment process of the organization. Developments in technology have had a dramatic effect on the way in which an organization can manage its operations. With evolutions in HR technological systems, advancements in the electronic human resource management (e-HRM) have been adopted by many organizations. For instance, organizations have been better placed to search for new employees around the world by using the internet such as World Wide Web. By applying this type of recruitment process enables skilled employees to easily get connected with employers. It has reduced the cost of recruiting new employees and it easily brings skilled employees to the organization. In addition, advanced in technologies such as call centers have been incorporated into other HR practices such e-HRM have helped organizations well-defined performance system.  The developments in the call center have specifically have resulted in an interesting convergence of HRIS and HR architecture to explore lessons and future directions in e-HRM.

The purpose of this paper is to provide a background of the call center developments over the past five years in the line of e-HRM practice. To be specific, focusing on technological advancements in the operation of call centers will overtake the development of e-HRM practices to reveal the ways in which both can be integrated and implemented to come up with  an end-to-end process. Secondly, the scope of this paper will be on the development of performance management HR practices such as, e-coaching, electronic performance monitoring (EPM), and e-learning using HRIS integrations (Coombes, 2014). Even though in many ways this integrated e-HRM models has improved organization performance and effectiveness.

Introducing Call Centers

Introduction of call centers at Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel will provide the best environment from which the company can draw critical insights that are related to e-HRM since the model has the widest reach across the company. Over the past five years, this model has dramatically transformed the nature of work of Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel from one of an autonomous role with complexity to a more structured one with defined rules (Freedman, 2012). The technologies in this company has have provided a direct connection to practices related to HRM and have been incorporated as a standard of call center practices in many cases (Andresen & Nowak, 2014). Thus examining this case of e-HRM applied at Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel assist in understanding the impact on performance outcomes.

Over the past five years, the introduction of technological advancements in telecommunications and information technology (IT) has vastly enhanced the ability for Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel to transform the ways in which it goes about its business. These advancements have enabled the re-engineering of call center in this hotel and around the globe (Ulrich & Younger, 2012). As a result, it has increased employment rate in the hotel.

Vosburgh & Resorts (2012), “this growth of call center operations and the accompanying employment surge has been closely linked to the development of a call center management model which has significantly changed the nature of work in the hotel”. Talking from human resource perspective, taking a step of adopting and integrating such technological advancement within the call center environment have enabled organizations such as Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel to develop processes for performance (Vosburgh & Resorts, 2012). They have also enabled the company to create succinct job analysis and design, incorporate dynamic training modules, and to establish targeted recruitment practices. Talking from an operational point of view, the adoption of call centers has allowed the hotel to integrate practices such industrial engineering and mass production principles, to simplify service delivery process and to make work much easier and come with more routine job designs (Freedman, 2012).

Electronic Performance Monitoring (EPM)

Electronic performance monitoring (EPM) has had a positive impact on HR in general and Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel. Monitoring performance as an HR factor is not a new phenomenon in the workplace. However, with the development of Web-enabled technologies, organizations such as Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel have expanded performance practices to include EPM. The introduction of electronic performance monitoring has moved employees at Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel from occasional to constant monitoring. Prior to EPM, employees at Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel were usually monitored though document review and observations. These methods provided employees with some type of control over the monitoring process. EPM has enabled Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel to have an always-on-approach to monitoring with access to information in real-time or through electronic retrieval. These electronic sources provide vast amount of information to review employees in areas such as attendance, work time, accuracy, quality, and interaction with customers.

Vosburgh & Resorts (2012) argue that EPM has been extensively applied in many hospitality organizations and research shows evidence of mixed results about the overall effectiveness of such practices. Benefits of such EPM practices suggest that there is an improved capability for supervisors to provide performance feedback to employees. However, it has been noted that such practices are considered intrusive and counterproductive. For example, in research carried out on Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel, it has been found that where its employees are closely monitored, there are high cases of stress and dissatisfaction among these workers.

In a recent meta analysis, the results that the presence of EPM alone does increase performance. However, this study also shows that central to the overall effectiveness of the integrated e-HRM practice is the employee’s perceptions of fairness and control. In other words, it is important that the operational efficiency goals are guided by strong HRM strategies and practices which consider employee implications when developing such e-HRM system integrations (Coombes, 2014). HRIS capability in these situations could be strengthened by shifting the HR strategy to provide employees with a more transactional approach to managing process.


As EPM has changed the way in which employees work at Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel, these same systems have equally changed the way in which supervisors evaluate and work with employees. The Web-enabled systems which make employee information easily accessible have made it possible for supervisors to provide instant feedback to employees. This ability to provide feedback more closely to the time of the action or behavior has enhanced the development of employees within the role (Ulrich & Younger, 2012). For the most part, Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel purposely applies e-coaching to the performance management metrics for individual, group, and organizational level. For example, a supervisor in the field of technology can use various types of Web-enabled applications to set thresholds and triggers to highlight employee performance abnormalities. The supervisor can create automatic responses to employees signaling the required change or congratulatory messages or engage in online chat to more fully explore the issue and work with employee. Similarly, employees in some operations may have the ability to click a button to connect with a supervisor directly to work through an issue or emergency.

Ignoring the above factors

            By any chance Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel ignores the aforementioned factors; it would be the start of its flop in its HRM. Good HRM ensures that the company succeeds in processes such as employee recruitment and training (Coombes, 2014). Employee training at Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel is a hallmark of its good management, and if task managers overlook it, it will be at their own peril. The company will not be better placed to gain a strong competitive advantage if it does not have better-trained staff. Having employees who seem to have a high potential to perform is not a guarantee to the employer that they will succeed. Instead, they have to know what their supervisors want from them. If they do not receive these instructions, they will do the work in their own way, not the way the supervisor wants them to do (Vosburgh & Resorts, 2012).

In addition, the company will find it hard to develop its management. Basically, the secret of succeeding in your goals as a manager and as an organization in general basically lies in learning how to release the hidden potential of people.  One function of the HR is to motivate workers. When workers are not motivated, there are high chances of them not being so productive. The relationship between pay and motivation plays a crucial role in an organization such as Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel. It is said that money motivates, no matter the situation (Andresen & Nowak, 2014).

What to do to prepare for the future

            Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel has a plan to improve its recruitment process. This hotel aims at having a well-trained team of employers that will put the company on map as the best hotel in terms of service delivery. When its services are of the required standards, it will increase the number of customers visiting the hotel. It also aims at applying e-HRM when it comes to supervising its workers (Ulrich & Younger, 2012).

In addition, the hotel has a plan to apply intrinsic motivation on its employees. It wants to ensure that the workers get motivated to an extent that they work not because they want to get paid at the end of the day or month, but because the job is interesting, engaging, or possibly challenging. Self-determination at work is often associated with high levels of intrinsic motivation.









Andresen, M., & Nowak, C. (2014). Human Resource Management Practices: Assessing Added Value. New York : Springer.

Coombes, R. (2014). Ten trends that will reshape the future of HR. HR Magazine.

Freedman, A. (2012). A New Way of Looking at HR. Human Resource Executive Online.

Ulrich, D., & Younger, J. (2012). HR from the Outside In: Six Competencies for the Future of Human Resources. New York, NY.: McGraw Hill .

Vosburgh, R. & Resorts, M. (2012). The Evolution of HR: Developing HR as an Internal Consulting Organization. Human Resource Planning.










Part B – Case study (10 marks) (500 words)

Choose some aspect of economic activity, and show how a concept or theory we have studied can be used to understand what happens in that situation, and/or to make policy recommendations on how social welfare could be improved through some type of intervention.

Possible topics for case studies might be:


  1. Using the model of perfectly competitive markets to explain price changes that have  occurred, or to analyse the effects of some type of market intervention;


  1. Using the concept of incentives to explain behaviour by market participants;


  1. Using the concepts of surplus to analyse the effect on society’s well-being of a government policy; or


  1. Use the theory of market power to analyse or explain prices.

To show in more detail how to go about doing a case study, we will post some examples of  excellent case studies from previous years. There is also a variety of books that illustrate (in differing amounts of detail) the idea of a case study that you could consult:

The Economic Naturalist by Robert Frank

Freakonomics by Stephen Dubner and Steven Levitt

In the case study you should:

  1. Introduce the aspect of economic activity that you will analyse;
  2. Briefly describe the theory or concept you will use in the case study;
  3. Most importantly, apply the concept or theory to analyse the aspect of economic activity you’ve chosen; and
  4. Provide any concluding remarks.

Four main factors will be considered in marking your case study:

  1. a) Knowledge of economic concepts – For example: Has the answer used the appropriate economic concepts? Does the answer show a thorough understanding of those concepts?
  2. b) Quality of analysis and application of economic concepts – For example: Is there a logical and thorough supporting argument or description of how conclusions have been drawn? Have economic concepts been applied in an effective manner in the particular application? Are assumptions clearly described? Is an understanding shown of any relevant qualifications to the conclusion?
  3. c) Presentation – For example: Are the writing style and organisation of material such that the main ideas and arguments can be understood? Are diagrams presented clearly and effectively integrated with text?
  4. d) Research – Have examples been chosen that have taken some effort to find? What is the quality of evidence supporting arguments that are made?

Reflection on Time Management


The manner in which I manage my time is largely dependent on the activities of the day. I do not have a fixed schedule on what I should do every day. My priority is always doing the home work in case we had been given at school. Immediately I am through with my assignments, I then take my note books and review the notes that I wrote the entire day. This helps me in remembering all the concepts that were taught at school. Reviewing my notes takes at most one hour. However, it is not guaranteed that I will complete reviewing them as most of the time I get bored and switch on the television. At times, I do take a nap for one or two hours after reviewing the day’s notes. Once I wake up, I don’t continue with my studies and I usually switch the television on either to watch news or movie.

When I critically review how I manage my time, I realize that there is more that I can do to achieve my academic goals. At the moment, I have no time for my private studies. The only time that I have is that of doing the assignments and reviewing the daily notes. I therefore feel that my time management skills are very poor and needs to be reviewed if I am to get more time for my studies. I strongly feel that if I am able to manage my time well, I can be in a position to achieve my academic goals. I also feel that I am losing a lot of time watching movies and news at the expense of private studies. The time that I waste taking a nap after completing my assignments can be used in more constructive ways such as personal revision.

The fact that I do not have a fixed time management schedule has denied me time to review the old notes as well as revision materials. At the end of each day, I usually find myself lamenting on the time that I have lost doing things that are not related to academics. Every day, I assure myself that I would carry out some personal study. However, most of the time, I find myself watching television after I complete my assignments. To ensure that I am able to effectively manage my time, I have decided to formulate a study timetable that balances my study and leisure. At the moment, leisure especially watching television takes much of the time leaving very little time for personal studies. The worksheet has especially helped me to develop a time management schedule that I hope will help me in balancing education and leisure and reap maximum benefits from my studies.

Reflection on Sleep

When I reflect on my sleeping habit, it is evident that I do not have a particular sleeping pattern. The number of hours that I sleep varies from day to day. At times, I can sleep as early as 10pm while at other times I can sleep as late as 2am. The time to sleep depends on the activity that I am doing. For example, when I am busy watching an interesting movie, I cannot sleep until the movie is over. This is usually very late at night or early morning of the following day. The time to wake up also depends on what I have to do in the morning of the following day. During school days, I have to wake up early so as not to be late for my classes.

The sleeping pattern that I have adopted has not been of much benefit to me especially when it comes to paying attention in class. During the days that I sleep late, I usually experience hard time trying to concentrate in class. At times I sleep for three hours which is clearly not enough for me to completely rest. Three hours sleep is far too less as compared to what experts propose. Sleeping for six hours His makes me doze for most part of the day and therefore I lose a lot of quality study time. For the days that I am not going to school, I do not have specific time to wake up. I sleep for as long as I can and only wake up once I gain consciousness and not being woken up by an alarm. This extended sleep however makes me to feel disoriented once I wake up. This disorientation affects my daily activities as I always feel lethargic when doing those activities.

From this analysis, I have been able to appreciate the importance of sleeping with moderation as sleep experts propose. Good sleeping habit ensures that one is fresh to face a new day and remain active in all the activities that he does. The fact that I sometimes find myself sleeping while in class is prove that I have a problem with my pattern of sleep. This has prompted me to develop a sleeping pattern outline that will help me



Solution 1:



The graph break when , but the reason for the discontinuity is different , here is defined but does not exists

So is discontinuous at




Solution 2:






Solution 3:





Compute the slope of f’(4)= at x=4; m=-1/6

Find the line with slope m=-1/16 and passing through (4, ½); y=-1/16x+3/4

Solution 4:





Solution 5:


We want to find f(2). We use marginal analysis to get an approximation for this value. In particular, f(2)=f(2)+f’(2)*(0)=10+7*0=10 minutes. This estimate is obtained by considering the tangent line to f at P=2. This estimate uses the T-value at P=2 on the tangent line as an approximation for f(2). Since the tangent line lies below the graph at P=2, this gives an underestimate.


As the population increases, the time it takes to get to work increases at the rate of 7 minutes per 100,000 people increase in the population.


We want to find f(2.5). We use marginal analysis to get an approximation for this value. In particular, f(2)=f(2)+f’(2)*(0.5)=10+7*0.5=13.5 minutes. This estimate is obtained by considering the tangent line to f at P=2.5. This estimate uses the T-value at P=2.5 on the tangent line as an approximation for f(2.5). Since the tangent line lies below the graph at P=2, this gives an underestimate.


We want to find dT/dt at that point in time when P = 2 (i.e. now). We know from part b) that dT/dP = f’(2)=7 and we are told that dP/dt=0.2. Using the chain rule we get

dT/dP=(dT/dp)(dP/dt)=7*0.2=1.4 minutes/year.




Management has recognized the effect of changes in the real-world competitive environment and government policies on other industries and anticipates similar events occurring in their industry. This report puts into context Apple Watch as a new product for the mobile technology giant Apple Inc. in the description of global/international corporations as well as their ability to still remain competitive on the local level. In the present day competitive environment, multinational corporations are required not only to compete in their new-market entrance abilities and achieving local economies of scale but also the ability to conduct effective administrative flow of knowledge in a n economy based on information (Ordóñez, 2006). In order to increase their level of competitiveness, there are challenges faced in the pursue of global efficiency, for instance within Apple Inc., and as such there are strategies that are put into place in order to increase local responsiveness alongside information transfer and effective knowledge within subsidiaries. In the case of Apple Inc. in the launching of the new product Apple Watch, such local level responsiveness can be employed through strategies that underlie competitive advantages.

In the adoption of the international strategies for marketing Apple Watch, Apple Inc. needs to adopt efficiency and flexibility to ensure local responsiveness. This is through a multi-domestic approach that involves knowledge transfer and competencies within the local subsidiaries. Tight control and high centralization on the various activities involved in the marketing of Apple Watch will result to product adaptation in the satisfaction of local needs. Increasing the level of competitiveness locally is sufficient in overcoming the various challenges existing in the local market for global corporations today (Yongsun and Sohn, 2004).





Ordóñez de Pablos, P. (2006). Transnational corporations and strategic challenges: An analysis of knowledge flows and competitive advantage. The Learning Organization, 13 (6), 544 – 559

Yongsun, P. and Sohn, J. (2004). Striking a balance between global integration and local responsiveness: The case of Toshiba Corporation in redefining regional headquarters’ role. Organizational Analysis, 12(4), 347-359.